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TIR Convention

The Convention on International Transport of Goods Under Cover of TIR Carnets (TIR Convention) is a multilateral treaty that was concluded at Geneva on 14 November 1975 to simplify and harmonize the administrative formalities of international road transport. (TIR stands for "Transports Internationaux Routiers" or "International Road Transports".) The 1975 convention replaced the TIR Convention of 1959, which itself replaced the 1949 TIR Agreement between a number of European countries. The conventions were adopted under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). As of May 2013, there are 68 parties to the Convention, including 67 states and the European Union.

The TIR Convention establishes an international customs transit system with maximum facility to move goods. The TIR system not only covers customs transit by road but a combination is possible with other modes of transport (e.g., rail, inland waterway, and even maritime transport), as long as at least one part of the total transport is made by road. Truckers making use of the TIR procedure must first obtain an internationally harmonized customs document, referred to as a TIR carnet. TIR carnets are issued by national road transport associations. This customs document is valid internationally and as well as describing the goods, their shipper and their destination, represents a financial guarantee. When a truck arrives at a border customs post it need not pay import duties and taxes on goods at that time. Instead the payments are suspended. If the vehicle transits the country without delivering any goods, no taxes are due. If it fails to leave the country with all the goods, then the taxes are billed to the importer and the financial guarantee backstops the importer's obligation to pay the taxes. TIR transits are carried out in bond, i.e. the lorry must be sealed as well as bearing the carnet. The security payment system is administered by the International Road Transport Union (IRU).

ADR Classification

The Carriage of dangerous goods and marine pollutants in sea-going ships is respectively regulated in the International Convention for the Safety of the Life at Sea (SOLAS) and the International Convention for the Prevention of pollution from Ships (MARPOL).

Relevant parts of both SOLAS and MARPOL have been worked out in great detail and are included in the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code, thus making this Code the legal instrument for maritime transport of dangerous goods and marine pollutants. As of 1st January 2004, the IMDG Code will become a mandatory requirement.

Classification of dangerous goods for all modes of transport (sea, air, rail, road and inland waterways) the classification (grouping) of dangerous goods, by type of risk involved, has been drawn up by the UNITED NATIONS Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (UN).

Class 1: Explosives.

Subclass 1.1

Consists of explosives that have a mass explosion hazard. A mass explosion is one which affects almost the entire load instantaneously.

Subclass 1.2

Consists of explosives that have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard.

Subclass 1.3

Consists of explosives that have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard or, both but not a mass explosion hazard.

Subclass 1.4

Consists of explosives that present a minor explosion hazard. The explosive effects are largely confined to the package and no projection of fragments of appreciable size or range is to be expected. An external fire must not cause virtually instantaneous explosion of almost the entire contents of the package.

Subclass 1.5

Consists of very insensitive explosives. This division is comprised of substances which have a mass explosion hazard but are so insensitive that there is very little probability of initiation or of transition from burning to detonation under normal conditions of transport

Subclass 1.6

Consists of extremely insensitive articles which do not have a mass explosive hazard. This division is comprised of articles which contain only extremely insensitive detonating substances and which demonstrate a negligible probability of accidental initiation or propagation.

Class 2: Gases.

Subclass 2.1 - Flammable Gas

454 kg (1001 lbs) of any material which is a gas at 20°C (68°F) or less and 101.3 kPa (14.7 psi) of pressure (a material which has a boiling point of 20°C (68°F) or less at 101.3 kPa (14.7 psi)) which: 1. Is ignitable at 101.3 kPa (14.7 psi) when in a mixture of 13 percent or less by volume with air; or 2. Has a flammable range at 101.3 kPa (14.7 psi) with air of at least 12 percent regardless of the lower limit.

Subclass 2.2 - Non-flammable, Non-poisonus Gas

This division includes compressed gas, liquefied gas, pressurized cryogenic gas, compressed gas in solution, asphyxiant gas and oxidizing gas. A non-flammable, nonpoisonous compressed gas (Division 2.2) means any material (or mixture) which: 1. Exerts in the packaging an absolute pressure of 280 kPa (40.6 psia) or greater at 20°C (68°F), and 2. Does not meet the definition of Division 2.1 or 2.3.

Subclass 2.3 - Oxygen Gas

This is an optional placard to the 2.2 Non-flammable Gas placard for compressed Oxygen in either the gas or liquid state. Oxygen is considered a non-flammable because it in and of itself does not burn. It is, however, required for combustion to take place. High concentrations of oxygen greatly increases the rate and intensity of combustion.

Subclass 2.4 - Poison Gas

Gas poisonous by inhalation means a material which is a gas at 20°C or less and a pressure of 101.3 kPa (a material which has a boiling point of 20°C or less at 101.3kPa (14.7 psi)) and which: 1. is known to be so toxic to humans as to pose a hazard to health during transportation, or 2. in the absence f adequate data on human toxicity, is presumed to be toxic to humans because when tested on laboratory animals it has an LC50 value of not more than 5000 ml/m3.

Class 3: Flammable Liquids.

A flammable liquid (Class 3) means a liquid having a flash point of not more than 60.5°C (141°F), or any material in a liquid phase with a flash point at or above 37.8°C (100°F) that is intentionally heated and offered for transportation or transported at or above its flash point in a bulk packaging, with the following exceptions:

1. Any liquid meeting one of the definitions specified in 49CFR 173.115.

2. Any mixture having one or more components with a flash point of 60.5°C (141°F) or higher, that make up at least 99 percent of the total volume of the mixture, if the mixture is not offered for transportation or transported at or above its flash point.

3. Any liquid with a flash point greater than 35°C (95°F) which does not sustain combustion according to ASTM 4206 or the procedure in Appendix H of this part.

4. Any liquid with a flash point greater than 35°C (95°F) and with a fire point greater than 100°C (212°F) according to ISO 2592.

5. Any liquid with a flash point greater than 35°C (95°F) which is in a water-miscible solution with a water content of more than 90 percent by mass.

Class 4.1: Flammable Solids or Substances.

Desensitized explosives that when dry are explosives of Class 1 and are specifically authorized by name or have been assigned a shipping name and hazard class by the Associate Administrator.

Self-reactive materials, which are thermally unstable and that can undergo a strongly exothermic decomposition even without participation of air.

Readily combustible solids that can cause a fire through friction and show a burning rate faster than 2.2 mm (0.087 inches) per second, or metal powders that can be ignited and react over the whole length of a sample in 10 minutes or less.

Class 4.2: Flammable solids.

Spontaneously Combustible material is a pyrophoric material, which is a liquid or solid that can ignite within five (5) minutes after coming in contact with air or a self-heating material that when in contact with air and without an energy supply is liable to self-heat.

Class 4.3: Substances which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases.

Dangerous When Wet material is a material that when it makes contact with water is liable to become spontaneously flammable or give off flammable or toxic gas at a rate greater than 1 L per kilogram of the material per hour.

Class 5.1: Oxidizing substances (agents) by yielding oxygen increase the risk and intensity of fire.

Oxidizer (Division 5.1) means a material that may, generally by yielding oxygen, cause or enhance the combustion of other materials.

1. A solid material is classed as a Division 5.1 material if, when tested in accordance with the UN Manual of Tests and Criteria, its mean burning time is less than or equal to the burning time of a 3:7 potassium bromate/cellulose mixture.

2. A liquid material is classed as a Division 5.1 material if, when tested in accordance with the UN Manual of Tests and Criteria, it spontaneously ignites or its mean time for a pressure rise from 690 kPa to 2070 kPa gauge is less then the time of a 1:1 nitric acid (65 percent)/cellulose mixture.

Class 5.2: Organic peroxides - most will burn rapidly and are sensitive to impact or friction.

Organic peroxide (Division 5.2) means any organic compound containing oxygen (O) in the bivalent -O-O- structure and which may be considered a derivative of hydrogen peroxide, where one or more of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by organic radicals, unless any of the following paragraphs applies:

1. The material meets the definition of an explosive as prescribed in subpart C of this part, in which case it must be classed as an explosive;

2. The material is forbidden from being offered for transportation according to 49CFR 172.101 of this subchapter or 49CFR 173.21;

3. The Associate Administrator for Hazardous Materials Safety has determined that the material does not present a hazard which is associated with a Division 5.2 material; or

4. The material meets one of the following conditions:

1. For materials containing no more than 1.0 percent hydrogen peroxide, the available oxygen, as calculated using the equation in paragraph (a)(4)(ii) of this section, is not more than 1.0 percent, or

2. For materials containing more than 1.0 percent but not more than 7.0 percent hydrogen peroxide

Class 6.1: Toxic, poison substances.

Known to be toxic to humans so as to afford a hazard to health during transportation or is presumed to be toxic to humans because it falls within a toxic category when tested on laboratory animals.

An irritating material such as tear gas that causes extreme irritation, especially in confined spaces.

Class 6.2: Infectious substances.

Infectious Substance material is known to contain or suspected of containing a pathogen

3.6.2.1 Definitions

For the purposes of these Regulations:

3.6.2.1.1 Infectious substances are substances which are known or are reasonably expected to contain pathogens. Pathogens are defined as micro-organisms (including bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae, parasites, fungi) and other agents such as prions, which can cause disease in humans or animals.

Note: Toxins from plant, animal or bacterial sources which do not contain any infectious substances or toxins that are not contained in substances which are infectious substances should be considered for classification in Division 6.1 and assigned to UN3172.

3.6.2.1.2 Biological products are those products derived from living organisms which are manufactured and distributed in accordance with the requirements of appropriate national authorities, which may have special licensing requirements, and are used either for prevention, treatment, or diagnosis of disease in humans or animals, or for development, experimental or investigational purposes related thereto. They include, but are not limited to, finished or unfinished products such as vaccines.

3.6.2.1.3 Cultures are the result of a process by which pathogens are intentionally. This definition does not include patient specimens as defined in 3.6.2.1.4.

3.6.2.1.4 Patient specimens are those collected directly from humans or animals, including, but not limited to, excreta, secreta, blood and its components, tissue and tissue fluid swabs, and body parts being transported for purposes such as research, diagnosis, investigational activities, disease treatment and prevention.

3.6.2.1.5 Medical or clinical wastes are wastes derived from the medical treatment of animals or humans or from bio-research.

3.6.2.2 Classification of Infectious Substances

3.6.2.2.1 Infectious substances must be classified in Division 6.2 and assigned to UN2814, UN2900, UN 3291 or UN3373, as appropriate.

3.6.2.2.2 Infectious substances are divided into the following categories.

3.6.2.2.2.1 Category A:

An infectious substance which is transported in a form that, when exposure to it occurs, is capable of causing permanent disability, life-threatening or fatal disease in otherwise healthy humans or animals. Indicative examples of substances that meet these criteria are given in Table 3.6.D.

Note: An exposure occurs when an infectious substance is released outside of the protective packaging, resulting in physical contact with humans or animals

(a) Infectious substances meeting these criteria which cause disease in humans or both in humans and animals must be assigned to UN 2814. Infectious substances which cause disease only in animals must be assigned to UN 2900.

(b) Assignment to UN 2814 or UN 2900 must be based on the known medical history and symptoms of the source human or animal, endemic local conditions, or professional judgement concerning individual circumstances of the source human oranimal.

Notes:

1. The proper shipping name for UN 2814 is Infectious substance, affecting humans. The proper shipping name for UN 2900 is Infectious substance, affecting animals only.

2. The following table is not exhaustive. Infectious substances, including new or emerging pathogens, which do not appear in the table, but which meet the same criteria must be assigned to Category A. In addition, if there is doubt as to whether or not a substance meets the criteria it must be included in Category A.

3. In the following list, the micro-organisms written in italics are bacteria, mycoplasma, rickettsia or fungi.

Bacillus anthracis (cultures only)

Infectious substance

Brucella abortus (cultures only)

Brucella melitensis (cultures only)

Brucella suis (cultures only)

Burkholderia mallei – Pseudomonas mallei – Glanders (cultures only)

Burkholderia pseudomallei – Pseudomonas pseudomallei (cultures only)

Chlamydia psittaci – avian strains (cultures only)

Clostridium botulinum (cultures only)

Coccidioides immitis (cultures only)

Coxiella burnetii (cultures only)

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus

Dengue virus (cultures only)

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (cultures only)

Escherichia coli, verotoxigenic (cultures only)

Ebola virus

Flexal virus

Francisella tularensis (cultures only)

Guanarito virus

Hantaan virus

Hantavirus causing hemorragic fever with renal syndrome

Hendra virus

Hepatitis B virus (cultures only)

Herpes B virus (cultures only)

Human immunodeficiency virus (cultures only)

Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (cultures only)

Japanese Encephalitis virus (cultures only)

Junin virus

Kyasanur Forest disease virus

Lassa virus

Machupo virus

Marburg virus

Monkeypox virus

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (cultures only)

Nipah virus

Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus

Poliovirus (cultures only)

Rabies virus

Rickettsia prowazekii (cultures only)

Rickettsia rickettsii (cultures only)

Rift Valley fever virus

Russian spring-summer encephalitis virus (cultures only)

Sabia virus

Shigella dysenteriae type 1 (cultures only)

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (cultures only)

Variola virus

Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus

West Nile virus (cultures only)

Yellow fever virus (cultures only)

Yersinia pestis (cultures only)

African swine fever virus (cultures only)

Avian paramyxovirus Type 1 – Velogenic Newcastle disease virus (cultures only)

Classical swine fever virus (cultures only)

Foot and mouth disease virus (cultures only)

Goatpox virus (cultures only)

Lumpy skin disease virus (cultures only)

Mycoplasma mycoides – Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia(cultures only)

Peste des petits ruminants virus (cultures only)

Rinderpest virus (cultures only)

Sheep-pox virus (cultures only)

Swine vesicular disease virus (cultures only)

Vesicular stomatitis virus (cultures only)

3.6.2.2.2.2 Category B:

An infectious substance which does not meet the criteria for inclusion in Category A. Infectious substances in Category B must be assigned to UN 3373.

Note: The proper shipping name of UN 3373 is Diagnostic specimens or Clinical specimens or Biological substance, category B. On 1 January 2007, it is anticipated that the use of the shipping names Diagnostic specimens and Clinical specimens will no longer be permitted.

3.6.2.2.3 Exemptions

3.6.2.2.3.1 Substances which do not contain infectious substances or substances which are unlikely to cause disease in humans or animals are not subject to these Regulations unless they meet the criteria for inclusion in another class.

3.6.2.2.3.2 Substances containing microorganisms which are non-pathogenic to humans or animals are not subject to these Regulations unless they meet the criteria for inclusion in another class.

3.6.2.2.3.3 Substances in a form that any present pathogens have been neutralized or inactivated such that they no longer pose a health risk are not subject to these Regulations unless they meet the criteria for inclusion in another class.

3.6.2.2.3.4 Environmental samples (including food and water samples) which are not considered to pose a significant risk of infection are not subject to these Regulations unless they meet the criteria for inclusion in another class.

3.6.2.2.3.5 Dried blood spots, collected by applying a drop of blood onto absorbent material, or faecal occult blood screening tests and blood or blood components which have been collected for the purposes of transfusion or for the preparation of blood products to be used for transfusion or transplantation and any tissues or organs intended for use in transplantation are not subject to these Regulations.

3.6.2.2.3.6 Patient specimens for which there is minimal likelihood that pathogens are present are not subject to these Regulations if the specimen is packed in a packaging which will prevent any leakage and which is marked with the words "Exempt human specimen" or "Exempt animal specimen", as appropriate. The packaging must meet the following conditions:

(a) The packaging must consist of three components:

(i) a leak-proof primary receptacle(s);

(ii) a leak-proof secondary packaging; and

(iii) an outer packaging of adequate strength for its capacity, mass and intended use, and with at least one surface having minimum dimensions of 100 mm × 100 mm;

(b) For liquids, absorbent material in sufficient quantity to absorb the entire contents must be placed between the primary receptacle(s) and the secondary packaging so that, during transport, any release or leak of a liquid substance will not reach the outer packaging and will not compromise the integrity of the cushioning material;

(c) When multiple fragile primary receptacles are placed in a single secondary packaging, they must be either individually wrapped or separated to prevent contact between them.

NOTE: In determining whether a patient specimen has a minimum likelihood that pathogens are present, an element of professional judgment is required to determine if a substance is exempt under this paragraph. That judgment should be based on the known medical history, symptoms and individual circumstances of the source, human or animal, and endemic local conditions.

Examples of specimens which may be transported under this paragraph include the blood or urine tests to monitor cholesterol levels, blood glucose levels, hormone levels, or prostate specific antigens (PSA); those required to monitor organ function such as heart, liver or kidney function for humans or animals with non-infectious diseases, or therapeutic drug monitoring; those conducted for insurance or employment purposes and are intended to determine the presence of drugs or alcohol; pregnancy test; biopsies to detect cancer; and antibody detection in humans or animals.

3.6.2.3 Biological Products

3.6.2.3.1 For the purposes of these Regulations, biological products are divided into the following groups:

(a) those which are manufactured and packaged in accordance with the requirements of appropriate national authorities and transported for the purposes of final packaging or distribution, and use for personal health care by medical professionals or individuals. Substances in this group are not subject to these Regulations

(b) those which do not fall under paragraph (a) and are known or reasonably believed to contain infectious substances and which meet the criteria for inclusion in Category A or Category B. Substances in this group must be assigned to UN2814, UN2900 or UN3373, as appropriate.

Note: Some licensed biological products may present a biohazard only in certain parts of the world. In that case, competent authorities may require these biological products to be in compliance with local requirements for infectious substances or may impose other restrictions.

3.6.2.4 Genetically Modified Micro-organisms and Organisms

3.6.2.4.1 Genetically modified micro-organisms not meeting the definition of an infectious substance must be classified according to Subsection 3.9.

3.6.2.5 Medical or Clinical Wastes

3.6.2.5.1 Medical or clinical wastes containing Category A infectious substances must be assigned to UN2814 or UN2900, as appropriate. Medical or clinical wastes containing infectious substances in Category B, must be assigned to UN3291.

3.6.2.5.2 Medical or clinical wastes which are reasonably believed to have a low probability of containing infectious substances must be assigned to UN3291. Note: The proper shipping name for UN3291 is Clinical waste, unspecified, n.o.s. or (Bio) Medical waste, n.o.s. or Regulated medical waste, n.o.s..

3.6.2.5.3 Decontaminated medical or clinical wastes which previously contained infectious substances are not subject to these Regulations unless they meet the criteria for inclusion in another class.

3.6.2.6 Infected Animals

3.6.2.6.1 A live animal that has been intentionally infected and is known or suspected to contain an infectious substance must not be transported by air unless the infectious substance contained cannot be consigned by any other means. Infected animals may only be transported under terms and conditions approved by the appropriate national authority.

3.6.2.6.2 Unless an infectious substance cannot be consigned by any other means, live animals must not be used to consign such a substance.

3.6.2.6.3 Animal carcasses affected by pathogens of category A or which would be assigned to category A in cultures only, must be assigned to UN 2814 or UN 2900 as appropriate. Other animal carcasses affected by pathogens included in Category B must be transported in accordance with provisions determined by the competent authority.

3.6.2.7 Patient Specimens Patient specimens must be assigned to UN 2814, UN 2900 or UN 3373 as appropriate except if they comply with 3.6.2.2.3

Class 7: Radioactive Substances.

Radioactives:

Any quantity of packages bearing the RADIOACTIVE YELLOW III label (LSA-III). Some radioactive materials in "exclusive use" with low specific activity radioactive materials will not bear the label, however, the RADIOACTIVE placard is required.

Closed transport vehicle means a transport vehicle or conveyance equipped with a securely attached exterior enclosure that during normal transportation restricts the access of unauthorized persons to the cargo space containing the Class 7 (radioactive) materials. The enclosure may be either temporary or permanent, and in the case of packaged materials may be of the "see-through" type, and must limit access from top, sides, and bottom.

Containment system means the assembly of components of the packaging intended to retain the radioactive contents during transportation.

Conveyance means:

1. For transport by public highway or rail: any transport vehicle or large freight container;

2. For transport by water: any vessel, or any hold, compartment, or defined deck area of a vessel including any transport vehicle on board the vessel; and

3. For transport by aircraft, any aircraft.

Design means the description of a special form Class 7 (radioactive) material, a package, packaging, or LSA-III, that enables those items to be fully identified. The description may include specifications, engineering drawings, reports showing compliance with regulatory requirements, and other relevant documentation.

Exclusive use (also referred to in other regulations as "sole use" or "full load") means sole use by a single consignor of a conveyance for which all initial, intermediate, and final loading and unloading are carried out in accordance with the direction of the consignor or consignee. The consignor and the carrier must ensure that any loading or unloading is performed by personnel having radiological training and resources appropriate for safe handling of the consignment.

The consignor must issue specific instructions in writing, for maintenance of exclusive use shipment controls, and include them with the shipping paper information provided to the carrier by the consignor.

Fissile material means plutonium-238, plutonium-239, plutonium-241, uranium-233, uranium-235, or any combination of these radionuclides. The definition does not apply to unirradiated natural uranium and depleted uranium, and natural uranium or depleted uranium that has been irradiated in a thermal reactor. Certain additional exceptions are provided in 49CFR 173.453.

Fissile material, controlled shipment means any shipment that contains one or more packages that have been assigned, in accordance with 49CFR 173.457, nuclear criticality control transport indices greater than 10.

Freight container means a reusable container having a volume of 1.81 cubic meters (64 cubic feet) or more, designed and constructed to permit its being lifted with its contents intact and intended primarily for containment of packages in unit form during transportation. A "small freight container" is one which has either one outer dimension less than 1.5 meters (4.9 feet) or an internal volume of not more than 3.0 cubic meters (106 cubic feet). All other freight containers are designated as "large freight containers."

Highway route-controlled quantity means a quantity within a single package which exceeds:

1. 3,000 times the A1 value of the radionuclides as specified in 49CFR 173.435 for special form Class 7 (radioactive) material;

2. 3,000 times the A2 value of the radionuclides as specified in 49CFR 173.435 for normal form Class 7 (radioactive) material; or

3. 1,000 TBq (27,000 Ci), whichever is least.

Limited quantity of Class 7 (radioactive) material means a quantity of Class 7 (radioactive) material not exceeding the materials package limits specified in 49CFR 173.425 and conforming with requirements specified in 49CFR 173.421.

Low Specific Activity (LSA) material means Class 7 (radioactive) material with limited specific activity which satisfies the descriptions and limits set forth below. Shielding materials surrounding the LSA material may not be considered in determining the estimated average specific activity of the package contents.

Class 8: Corrosives.

Corrosives

1. For the purpose of this subchapter "corrosive materials" (Class 8) means a liquid or solid that causes full thickness destruction of human skin at the site of contact within a specified period of time. A liquid that has a severe corrosion rate on steel or aluminum is also a corrosive material.

2. If human experience or other data indicate that the hazard of a material is greater or less than indicated by the results of the tests specified in paragraph (a) of this section, RSPA may revise its classification or make the determination that the material is not subject to the requirements of this subchapter.

3. Skin corrosion test data produced no later than September 30, 1995, using the procedures of 49CFR 173, Appendix A, in effect on September 30, 1995 (see 49CFR Part 173, Appendix A, revised as of October 1, 1994) for appropriate exposure times may be used for classification and assignment of packing group for Class 8 materials corrosive to skin.

454 kg (1001 lbs) or more gross weight of a corrosive material. Although the corrosive class includes both acids and bases, the hazardous materials load and segregation chart does not make any reference to the separation of various incompatible corrosive materials from each other. In spite of this, however, when shipping corrosives care should be taken to ensure that incompatible corrosive materials can not become mixed as many corrosives react very violently if mixed. If responding to a transportation incident involving corrosive materials (especially a mixture of corrosives), caution should be exercised.

Class 9: Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles.

Miscellaneous

A material which presents a hazard during transportation but which does not meet the definition of any other hazard class. This class includes:

1. Any material which has an anesthetic, noxious or other similar property which could cause extreme annoyance or discomfort to a flight crew member so as to prevent the correct performance of assigned duties; or

2. Any material for an elevated temperature material, a hazardous substance, a hazardous waste, or a marine pollutant.

Incoterms

The Incoterms rules or International Commercial terms are a series of pre-defined commercial terms published by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) widely used in international commercial transactions. A series of three-letter trade terms related to common sales practices, the Incoterms rules are intended primarily to clearly communicate the tasks, costs and risks associated with the transportation and delivery of goods. The Incoterms rules are accepted by governments, legal authorities and practitioners worldwide for the interpretation of most commonly used terms in international trade. They are intended to reduce or remove altogether uncertainties arising from different interpretation of the rules in different countries. First published in 1936, the Incoterms rules have been periodically updated, with the eighth version—Incoterms 2010—having been published on January 1, 2011. "Incoterms" is a registered trademark of the ICC.

EXW

«Ex works» means that the seller delivers when he places the goods at the disposal of the buyer at the seller's premises or another named place (i.e. works, factory, warehouse, etc.) not cleared for export and not loaded on any collecting vehicle.

This term thus represents the minimum obligation for the seller, and the buyer has to bear all costs and risks involved in taking the goods from the seller's premises However, if the parties wish the seller to be responsible for the loading of the goods on departure and to bear the risks and all the costs of such loading, this should be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale .This term should not be used when the buyer cannot carry out the export formalities directly or indirectly. In such circumstances, the FCA term should be used, provided the seller agrees that he will load at his cost and risk.

FCA

«Free Carrier» means that the seller delivers the goods, cleared for export, to the carrier nominated by the buyer at the named place. It should be noted that the chosen place of delivery has an impact on the obligations of loading and unloading the goods at that place. If delivery occurs at the seller's premises, the seller is responsible for loading. If delivery occurs at any other place, the seller is not responsible for unloading.

This term may be used irrespective of the mode of transport, including multimodal transport. «Carrier» means any person who, in a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or to procure the performance of transport by rail, road, air, sea, inland waterway or by a combination of such modes.

If the buyer nominates a person other than a carrier to receive the goods, the seller is deemed to have fulfilled his obligation to deliver the goods when they are delivered to that person.

FAS

«Free Alongside Ship» means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed alongside the vessel at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that moment. The FAS term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. THIS IS A REVERSAL FROM PREVIOUS INCOTERMS VERSIONS WHICH REQUIRED THE BUYER TO ARRANGE FOR EXPORT CLEARANCE. However, if the parties wish the buyer to clear the goods for export, this should be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale.

This term can be used only for sea or inland waterway transport.

FOB

«Free on Board» means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship's rail at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that point. The FOB term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. This term can be used only for sea or inland waterway transport. If the parties do not intend to deliver the goods across the ship's rail, the FCA term should be used.

CFR

«Cost and Freight» means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship's rail in the port of shipment. The seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination BUT the risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time of delivery, are transferred from the seller to the buyer.

The CFR term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. This term can be used only for sea and inland waterway transport. If the parties do not intend to deliver the goods across the ship's rail, the CPT term should be used.

CIF

'Cost, Insurance and Freight' means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship's rail in the port of shipment. The seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination BUT the risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time of delivery, are transferred from the seller to the buyer.

CIF the seller also has to procure marine insurance against the buyer's risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage.

Consequently, the seller contracts for insurance and pays the insurance premium. The buyer should note that under the CIF term the seller is required to obtain insurance only on minimum cover. Should the buyer wish to have the protection of greater cover, he would either need to agree as much expressly with the seller or to make his own extra insurance arrangements. The CIF term

The CIF term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. This term can be used only for sea and inland waterway transport. If the parties do not intend to deliver the goods across the ship's rail, the CIP term should be used.

CIP

Carriage and Insurance paid to... means that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier nominated by him but the seller must in addition pay the cost of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named destination. This means that the buyer bears all risks and any additional costs occurring after the goods have been so delivered. However, in CIP the seller also has to procure insurance against the buyer's risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage.

Consequently, the seller contracts for insurance and pays the insurance premium. The buyer should note that under the CIP term the seller is required to obtain insurance only on minimum cover the buyer wish to have the protection of greater cover, he would either need to agree as much expressly with the seller or to make his own extra insurance arrangements.

«Carrier» means any person who, in a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or to procure the performance of transport, by rail, road, air, sea, inland waterway or by a combination of such modes.

If subsequent carriers are used for the carriage to the agreed destination, the risk passes when the goods have been delivered to the first carrier.

The CIP term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. This term may be used irrespective of the mode of transport including multimodal transport.

CPT

«Carriage paid to...» means that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier nominated by him but the seller must in addition pay the cost of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named destination. This means that the buyer bears all risks and any other costs occurring after the goods have been so delivered.

«Carrier» means any person who, in a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or to procure the performance of transport, by rail, road, air, sea, inland waterway or by a combination of such modes. If subsequent carriers are used for the carriage to the agreed destination, the risk passes when the goods have been delivered to the first carrier.

The CPT term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. This term may be used irrespective of the mode of transport including multimodal transport.

DAT

Delivered at Terminal (...named terminal at port or place of destination) New Term - May be used for all transport modes Seller delivers when the goods, once unloaded from the arriving means of transport, are placed at the disposal of the buyer at a named terminal at the named port or place of destination. "Terminal" includes quay, warehouse, container yard or road, rail or air terminal. Both parties should agree the terminal and if possible a point within the terminal at which point the risks will transfer from the seller to the buyer of the goods. If it is intended that the seller is to bear all the costs and responsibilities from the terminal to another point, DAP or DDP may apply.

DAP

New Term - May be used for all transport modes. Seller delivers the goods when they are placed at the disposal of the buyer on the arriving means of transport ready for unloading at the named place of destination. Parties are advised to specify as clearly as possible the point within the agreed place of destination, because risks transfer at this point from seller to buyer. If the seller is responsible for clearing the goods, paying duties etc., consideration should be given to using the DDP term.

DDP

Delivered duty paid» means that the seller delivers the goods to the buyer, cleared for import, and not unloaded from any arriving means of transport at the named place of destination. The seller has to bear all the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods thereto including, where applicable , any «duty» (which term includes the responsibility for and the risk of the carrying out of customs formalities and the payment of formalities, customs duties, taxes and other charges) for import in the country of destination.

Whilst the EXW term represents the minimum obligation for the seller, DDP represents the maximum obligation. This term should not be used if the seller is unable directly or indirectly to obtain the import licence.

However, if the parties wish to exclude from the seller's obligations some of the costs payable upon import of the goods (such as value-added tax : VAT), this should be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale.

If the parties wish the buyer to bear all risks and costs of the import, the DDU term should be used. This term may be used irrespective of the mode of transport but when delivery is to take place in the port of destination on board the vessel or on the quay (wharf), the DES or DEQ terms should be used

HS codes of Cargo

The Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (HS) of tariff nomenclature is an internationally standardized system of names and numbers for classifying traded products developed and maintained by the World Customs Organization (WCO) (formerly the Customs Co-operation Council), an independent intergovernmental organization with over 170 member countries based in Brussels, Belgium.

Under the HS Convention, the contracting parties are obliged to base their tariff schedules on the HS nomenclature, although parties set their own rates of duty. The HS is organized into 21 sections and 96 chapters, accompanied with general rules of interpretation and explanatory notes. The system begins by assigning goods to categories of crude and natural products, and from there proceeds to categories with increasing complexity. The codes with the broadest coverage are the first four digits, and are referred to as the heading.

Types of Trucks

Trailer (Tent)

This is used for transportations of most types of cargo. Tent gives possibility to load cargo from all sides of truck.

Capacity: 20-25 t

22-33 Europallets

Internal Volume: 60-92 cbm

Refregerated Truck

Ref Treiler. Is also used for most types of perishable cargos and cargos with special terms of storage. It can provide temparature from +25°С to -25°С.

Capacity: 12-22 t

24-33 Europallets

Internal Volume: 60-92 cbm

Mega Truck

Truck with a body on one frame + trailer. Main advantages of these trucks are fast loading and reloading and big net volume. Lack: It cannot be used for lengthy cargos.

Capacity: 16-25t

22-33 Europallets

60-120 cbm

Isotherm (Termos)

It is mainly used for transportations of food and such goods. It can keep a certain temperature for a long time.

Capacity: 3-25t

6-33 Europallets

30-92 cbm

Open Platform.

Is used used for transportation of goods, which areresistant to external weather influences. It also can be use for transportation of oversized cargo»

Capacity: 15-20t

«Jumbo»

A trailer with big capacity.

Capacity: up to 20 t

33 Europallets

Internal Volume: 96-125 cbm

Types of Containers

20" Standard Inside Length 5.895 m
Inside Width 2.350 m
Inside Height 2.392 m
Door Width 2.340 m
Door Height 2.292 m
Capacity 33 Cu. m
Tare Weight 2230 Kgs
Max Cargo Weight 28230 Kgs
40" Standard Inside Length 12.029 m
Inside Width 2.350 m
Inside Height 2.392 m
Door Width 2.340 m
Door Height 2.292 m
Capacity 68 info.Cubm
Tare Weight 3780Kgs
Max Cargo Weight 26700Kgs
40" High-Cube Inside Length 12.024 m
Inside Width 2.350 m
Inside Height 2.697 m
Door Width 2.340 m
Door Height 2.597 m
Capacity 76 info.Cubm
Tare Weight 4020Kgs
Max Cargo Weight 26460Kgs
20" Open Top Inside Length 5.888 m
Inside Width 2.345 m
Inside Height 2.315 m
Door Width 2.286 m
Door Height 2.184 m
Capacity 32 info.Cubm
Tare Weight 2250 Kgs
Max Cargo Weight 30480 Kgs
40" Open Top Inside Length 12.029 m
Inside Width 2.342 m
Inside Height 2.326 m
Door Width 2.341 m
Door Height 2.274 m
Capacity 65 info.Cubm
Tare Weight 3810 Kgs
Max Cargo Weight 26670 Kgs
20" Flatrack Inside Length 5.698 m
Inside Width 2.230 m
Inside Height 2.255 m
Door Width 0.000 m
Door Height 0.000 m
Capacity 0 info.Cubm
Tare Weight 2500 Kgs
Max Cargo Weight 21500 Kgs
40" Flatrack Inside Length 11.832 m
Inside Width 2.228 m
Inside Height 1.981 m
Door Width 0.000 m
Door Height 0.000 m
Capacity 0 info.Cubm
Tare Weight 4200 Kgs
Max Cargo Weight 40800 Kgs
20" Flatrack Collapsible Inside Length 5.675 m
Inside Width 2.213 m
Inside Height 2.270 m
Door Width 0.000 m
Door Height 0.000 m
Capacity 0 info.Cubm
Tare Weight 2600 Kgs
Max Cargo Weight 30150 Kgs
40" Flatrack Collapsible Inside Length 11.660 m
Inside Width 2.200 m
Inside Height 2.245 m
Door Width 0.000 m
Door Height 0.000 m
Capacity 0 info.Cubm
Tare Weight 5700 Kgs
Max Cargo Weight 39300 Kgs
20" Platform Inside Length 6.058 m
Inside Width 2.438 m
Inside Height 0.370 m
Door Width 0.000 m
Door Height 0.000 m
Capacity 0 info.Cubm
Tare Weight 2520 Kgs
Max Cargo Weight 27960 Kgs
40" Platform Inside Length 12.192 m
Inside Width 2.245 m
Inside Height 0.648 m
Door Width 0.000 m
Door Height 0.000 m
Capacity 0 info.Cubm
Tare Weight 5700 Kgs
Max Cargo Weight 39300 Kgs
20" Refrigerated Inside Length 5.724 m
Inside Width 2.286 m
Inside Height 2.014 m
Door Width 2.286 m
Door Height 2.067 m
Capacity 26 info.Cubm
Tare Weight 2550 Kgs
Max Cargo Weight 21450 Kgs
40" Refrigerated Inside Length 11.840 m
Inside Width 2.286 m
Inside Height 2.120 m
Door Width 2.286 m
Door Height 2.195 m
Capacity 60 info.Cubm
Tare Weight 3850 Kgs
Max Cargo Weight 26630 Kgs
20" Bulk Inside Length 5.934 m
Inside Width 2.358 m
Inside Height 2.340 m
Door Width 2.335 m
Door Height 2.292 m
Capacity 32 info.Cubm
Tare Weight 2450 Kgs
Max Cargo Weight 21550 Kgs
20" Tank Inside Length 6.058 m
Inside Width 2.438 m
Inside Height 2.438 m
Door Width 0.000 m
Door Height 0.000 m
Capacity 0 info.Cubm
Tare Weight 4190 Kgs
Max Cargo Weight 26290 Kgs

Types of Container Carriers

Semi-Trailer Container Carriers:

Semi-trailer container carriers are a class of wheeled vehicles with strictly functional purpose.

Traditionally container carriers are called type of transport, which are used for carrying loaded containers in container yards. However, destination points of arrival of the goods are far from the port container yards and the containers are transported to the destination by using specialized road container carriers.

Road container-carriers

Road container-carriers are called the semi-trailers, which are component of truck and are used for the transportation of containers, mostly on main roads. Container carrier can carry not only containers but any load under which you can pick up and fix platform. There are several types of semi-container: standard semi-container carriers and low frame container carriers.

Low-frame trailers

Low-frame trailers for containers (length: 12 650 mm, Loading height 1100 mm, Width 2500 mm.) Is used for the transportation of dry containers with large loading capacity. Low-frame trailers for containers are designed to carry one 20 foot high / standard container, two 20-foot containers or one 40 feet high / standard container. Cargo weight on a semi-trailer can reach 34,000 kg.

Standard Semi-trailers

Standard Semi-trailers for container (length of 12 650 mm, Loading height 1100 mm, Width 2500 mm.) Used for the transportation of dry cargo containers with large loading capacity. These are designed to carry one 20 foot high / standard container, two 20-foot containers or one 40 feet high / standard container. Cargo weight on a semi-trailer can reach 34,000 kg.

Board semitrailer container carriers:

Have the following internal dimensions: Length: 12.39-13m, Width: 2.48m, depth: 0.6m, weight: 7-9m, loading capacity is 35-50t. Container is additionally equipped with 12 fittings for 20 feet and 40 feet containers. Have removable board sides

Shipping Companies

ACL

Alianca

Allalouf

ANL

APL

ARRC (Atlantic Ro-Ro Carriers)

Atlanticargo

Balaji Shipping

Beacon Intermodal

Bernuth Lines

Blue Sky

Bridgehead

C& LINE

CAI

Canadian National Railway

Canadian Pacific Railway

Carlisle Leasing

CCNI

China shipping

CMA CGM

CNC Line

Containerships

COSCO Container Lines

Cronos

Crowley

CSAV

CSAV Norasia

CSCL (China Shipping Container Lines)

DAL

Delmas

Delta Shipping Lines / Maritime Agency Delta Shipping LTD

DFDS Seaways

DHL

Eimskip Eimskip Rus

Emirates Shipping Line

Evergreen

FESCO

Fine link container

Florens container services

Focus Trucking

GESeaCo

GOLD

Gold Star Line

Grimaldi

Hamburg Sud

Hanjin Shipping

Hapag Lloyd

Heung-A Shipping

HMM (Hyundai Merchant Marine)

Horizon Lines

Interpool

IRISL

Italia Marittima

Kambara Kisen

K-line

Korea Marine Transport

Libra

Linea Messina

MACS (Maritime Carrier Shipping)

Maersk Line

MAG shipping

Marfret

Matson

MOL (Mitsui O.S.K. Lines)

MSC (Mediterranean Shipping Company)

Namsung

NIRINT Shipping

Nordana

NSC (Northern Shipping Company)

NSCSA

NYK Line (Nippon Yusen Kaisha)

OOCL

OPDR

OTAL

Pacific Direct Line

PIL (Pacific International Lines)

Pollux & Castor

RCL

Rickmers-Linie Star Marine

Royal Arctic

Safmarine

SAMSKIP

SCI (The Shipping Corporation of India Ltd)

Sea Connect Line

Sea Star Line

Seaboard Marine

Seago Line

SEL (Shortsea Express Lines)

Senator Lines

Sinokor Merchant Marine

SITC

Star Shipping

STX Pan Ocean

SWAN CONTAINER LINE / SWAN AGENCY RUSSIA LTD.

T.S. Lines

TAL International

Tarros

TEAM LINES

Textainer

Triton Container

info.TroyContainer

U.S. LINES

UASC (United Arab Shipping Company)

UES AG

UES International

UniFeeder Unifeeder

United Arab Shipping

UOL (United Ocean Lines)

Vanguard Logistics

W.E.C. Lines

Wan Hai Lines

Waterfront Container

YML (Yang Ming Marine Transport Corp)

Custom structure in Armenia

Custom Points in Armenia

AYRUM- JILIZA CUSTOMS POINT

Address: Ayrum railroad line station, Lori Region

Phone number: (37460) 548680

BAGRATASHEN CUSTOMS POINT

Address: Bagratashen community, Tavush Region

Phone: (374 10) 28-45-71

BAVRA CUSTOMS POINT

Address: Bavra community, Shirak region,

Phone: (37410) 285829 (374 312) 6-10-94

GOGAVAN-PRIVOLNOE CUSTOMS POINT

Address: Privolnoe community, Gogavan, Lori region,

Phone number: (374 254) 6-00-02

INTERNATIONAL ROAD TRANSPORTATION REGIONAL CUSTOMS-HOUSE

Address: Isakov 10 str, Yerevan,

Phone: (37460) 54 38 00

MEGHRY CUSTOMS POINT

Address: Karchevan community, Syunik region

Phone: (37460) 54 73 33

PROFESSIONAL CUSTOMS-HOUSE OF GOODS TAXABLE BY EXCISE TAX

Address: 10 Isakov str., Yerevan

Phone: (37460) 543900

PROFESSIONAL CUSTOMS-HOUSE OF TRANSPORT FACILITIES' CUSTOMS FORMULATIONS

Address: 127/21 Arshakunyac str., Yerevan

Phone: (37460)547311

REGIONAL CUSTOMS-HOUSE OF ARARAT

Address: 10 Isakov str, Yerevan, 0082, RA

Phone: (374 60) 54-37-01

REGIONAL CUSTOMS-HOUSE OF GUGARQ

Address: 44 Moskovyan str., Vanadzor, Lori Region

Phone: (37460)548700, (374 322) 4-03-70

REGIONAL CUSTOMS-HOUSE OF SHIRAK

Address: 21 Khorenatsi str., Gyumri, Shirak Region

Phone: (37460) 579000, (374 312) 3-20-24

REGIONAL CUSTOMS-HOUSE OF SYUNIQ

Address: Shak community, Syunik region

Phone: (37410) 285826

"SHIRAK" AIRPORT CUSTOMS POINT

Address: Shirak airport, Gyumri, Shirak region,

Phone: (374 312) 6-10-93

"ZVARDNOC" CUSTOMS-HOUSE

Address: Zvardnoc airpot, Yerevam Armenia

Phone: (37460) 546200

Custom Warehouses in Armenia

“Dzyuniksarnaran” Ltd.

9 Arshakunyats St., Yerevan

52-62-00

“Trans-service” Ltd.

43 Shirak St., Yerevan

42-00-01

“Apaven” Ltd.

43 Araratyan St., Yerevan

46-44-99

Urartu P/A OJSC of Erevan

12 ArinBerd St., Yerevan

47-46-31

“Firma New” Ltd.

Region Kotayq, Arinj

28-53-48

“Hayk” CJSC

11 ArinBerd St., Yerevan

47-00-32

“AMGOtransservice” Ltd.

10 Teysheban St., Yerevan

47-42-32

“Zangesur Terminal” Ltd.

Territory of base,Gorcaranayin St., Kapan

285-6-65-00

“Trans-Alliance”

90/10 Araratyan St., Yerevan

52-95-98

“Armenia international airports” CJSC

“Zvardnoc” airport Cargo Terminal

49-30-00-/72-12/

“Metexcim” Ltd.

15/1 Artashat Highway, Yerevan

49-96-36

Glossary of Seashipments

ALL IN

The total price to move cargo from origin to destination, inclusive of all charges.

B/L

Abbreviation for “Bill of Lading.” A document that establishes the terms of a contract between a shipper and a transportation company. It serves as a document of title, a contract of carriage and a receipt for goods.

BAS - Base Rate

A tariff term referring to ocean rate less accessorial charges, or simply the base tariff rate.

BAF

Abbreviation for “Bunker Adjustment Factor.” Used to compensate steamship lines for fluctuating fuel costs. Sometimes called “Fuel Adjustment Factor” or FAF.

BFR

Sea freight

Booking

Arrangement with a steamship company for the acceptance and cartage of freight.

CAF

Abbreviation for “Currency Adjustment Factor.” A charge, expressed as a percentage of a base rate, that is applied to compensate ocean carriers of currency fluctuations.

Carrier

Any person or entity who, in a contract of carriage, undertakes to perform or to procure the performance of carriage by rail, road, sea, air, inland waterway or by a combination of such modes.

Certificate of Origin

Document which confirms that the cargo was produces in mentioned country.

Charter

Originally meant a flight where a shipper contracted hire of an aircraft from an air carrier, but has usually come to mean any non-scheduled commercial service.

C.O.C

(Сarrier’s Оwned Container)

Consignee

A person or company to whom commodities are shipped.

CUC

(Chassis Using Charge)

CY

(Container yard) -A materials–handling/storage facility used for completely unitized loads in containers and/or empty containers. Commonly referred to as CY.

DC

(Dry container)-A container constructed to carry grain, powder and other free-flowing solids in bulk

DDF

(Documentation Fee - Destination)

Demurrage

A penalty charge against shippers or consignees for delaying the carrier’s equipment or vessel beyond the allowed free time. The free time and demurrage charges are set forth in the charter party or freight tariff. See also Detention

Detention

A penalty charge against shippers or consignees for delaying carrier’s equipment beyond allowed time.

DHC

Handling Charge - Destination

Disbursement Account

document containing a list of charges of services in the port;

Discharging

Unloading

DOCS

(documentation), DocsFee

Door to Door

Through transportation of a container and its contents from consignor to consignee. Also known as House to House. Not necessarily a through rate.

ETA

Estimeted Time of Arrival

ETD

Estimated Time of Departure

Feeder

A short–sea vessel which transfers cargo between a central “hub” port and smaller “spoke” ports.

FFC

Freight Forwarder Commission/Brokerage - Origin

Free In and Out (FIO)

Cost of loading and unloading a vessel is borne by the charterer/shipper.

Free Out (FO)

Cost of unloading a vessel is borne by the charterer

FI (Free In)

free from discharge - a condition of carriage, which means that the freight does not include the cost of loading on a vessel;

FICY (Free in/Container yard)

On the port loading is on shipper’s account, delivery to the comtainer yard is on carrier’s account

FIFO (Free in/Free out)

Loading-Unloading on shippers account

FILO (Free in/Liner out)

Loading is on shipper’s account, unloading on carrier’s account

FIOS (Free in/out)

loading-unloading on shipper’s account

FO (Free Out)

free from discharge - a condition of carriage, which means that the freight does not include the cost of unloading from the vessel;

FCL

Abbreviation for “Full Container Load”

Freight

Refers to either the cargo carried or the charges assessed for carriage of the cargo.

GRI

Abbreviation for “General Rate Increase.” Used to describe an across–the–board tariff rate increase implemented by conference members and applied to base rates.

Gross Weight

Entire weight of goods, packaging and freight car or container, ready for shipment. Generally, 80,000 pounds maximum container, cargo and tractor for highway transport.

High Cube (HC or HQ)

Any container which exceeds 8 feet 6 inches (102 inches) in height, usually 9 feet 6 inches.

Heavy–Lift Charge

A charge made for lifting articles too heavy to be lifted by a ship’s normal tackle

IMO Surcharge

Surcharge for dangerous cargo

INCOTERMS (International Commercial Terms)

The recognized abbreviation for the International Chamber of Commerce Terms of Sale. These terms were last amended, effective July 1, 1990.

(ISPS)International Ship and Port Security Code

It is an amendment to the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention (1974/1988) on minimum security arrangements for ships, ports and government agencies. Having come into force in 2004, it prescribes responsibilities to governments, shipping companies, shipboard personnel, and port/facility personnel to “detect security threats and take preventative measures against security incidents affecting ships or port facilities used in international trade.”

LCL

Abbreviation for “Less than Container Load.” The quantity of freight which is less than that required for the application of a container load rate. Loose Freight.

LI (Liner In)

Conditions of loading, meaning that the cost of loading on the vessel is included in the freight rate;

LI-Door (Liner in / Door)

Loading in port is on carrier’s account, delivery up to consignees warehouse.

LIFO (Liner in/Free out)

Loading is on carrier’s account, unloading is on senders account

LILO (Liner in/out)

loading and unloading are on line’s account, included in the freight rate - full linear conditions;

LO (Liner Out)

Conditions, meaning that the cost of discharge from the vessel is included in the freight rate;

Manifest

Document that lists in detail all the bills of lading issued by a carrier or its agent or master for a specific voyage. A detailed summary of the total cargo of a vessel. Used principally for Customs purposes.

Laytime

Period during which the carrier provides the vessel for cargo loading without additional charges, by agreement of the parties, in the absence of such an agreement about the terms generally accepted in the port of loading;

Notify party

In a contract of carriage, the notification of a shipment’s arrival is usually sent to this party whose address appears on the shipping document. This party is usually either the buyer or the importer.

Open Top Container

A container fitted with a solid removable roof, or with a tarpaulin roof so the container can be loaded or unloaded from the top.

ODF (Documentation Fee - Origin)

Documentation fee at port of loading

POD

Abbreviation for: Port of Discharge, Port of Destination.

POL

Abbreviation for: Port of Loading.

PSS (Peak Season Surcharge)

allowance due to the seasonal increase in traffic at certain times of the year;

PCS (Port Congestion Surcharge)

Allowance due to an overload of container in port areas;

Quality Certificate

document confirming that the product quality matches with parameters, specifications, safety requirements for human life, health, and the natural environment

RF Reefer

Refrigerated container

SEC

Security charges in the port

Shipper

The person or company who is usually the supplier or owner of commodities shipped. Also called Consignor.

S.O.C

Shipper’s Owned Container

Storage

Rate for excess storage of cargo at the port. Is counted from the unloading terminal until removal from the terminal. Usually quoted for TEU

TEU

Abbreviation for “Twenty foot Equivalent Unit.”

THC

Terminal Handling Charge. A charge of carriers for recovering the costs of handling FCLs at container terminals at origin or destination.

War Risk

Insurance coverage for loss of goods resulting from any act of war

Waybill (WB)

A document prepared by a transportation line at the point of a shipment; shows the point of the origin, destination, route, consignor, consignee, description of shipment and amount charged for the transportation service. It is forwarded with the shipment or sent by mail to the agent at the transfer point or waybill destination. Abbreviation is WB. Unlike a bill of lading, a waybill is NOT a document of title.

Wharfage (Whfge.)

Charge assessed by a pier or dock owner against freight handled over the pier or dock or against a steamship company using the pier or dock.

WSC (Winter Surcharge)

winter surcharge for the ports where there is a possibility of icing

Packaging and packing Materials

For any type of transportation usually cargo is received in the packing. Packing provides safety of cargo during the transportation and loading-reloading operations. Apart from the fact that the packaging is an important condition for ensuring the safety of cargo, it allows to form cargo transportation units (based on volume and weight), to control details of cargo in the process of loading and reloading, delivery and dispatch, ooptimally use the useful volume of transport, provide conditions for loading and reloading, packing and marking of cargo.

The main element of the packing, which is a product for product placement, is the package. For shipments is used transport package (packing forming an independent transport unit). However, the terms of the contract of carriage may be provided that the goods are accepted for carriage in consumer packing.Classification of package is based on the the form. Classification is carried out depending on the form. The most common types of packages using in the transportation are:

Boxes

Box is a type of transport packing, which is closed on all sides, having a cross section parallel to the bottom, preferably rectangular in shape with a bottom, two end caps and the sidewalls, with or without a lid, made of board, plywood, plastic, metal or combinations of packing materials. Boxes are used for packing heavy and fragile goods.

Barrels

This is a package with a body with cylindrical or parabolic shape with rolling hoops or ridges. Barrels can be made of metal, plastic or wood. The barrels are principally used for transportations of liquid cargoes with big quantities. The feasibility of using is determined with technical and legal documents for each cargo.

Drum

This is a transport packing with smooth or corrugated body which has a cylindrical shape with no hoops and with flat bottom. Drum has a cylindrical shape as a shell consisting of many layers of paper bonded to each other. The bottom and the cover are made of multilayer paper, plywood, metal or a combination of these materials. Bottom and the shell are connected with a metal trip. The covers are fixed with clamp-locking devices. Drums can be used for transportations of pasty and liquid goods on condition of impregnation the inner walls or the use of natural artificial materials.

Bages

Bages are soft type of packing, with the body of sleeve with the buttom and neck. The neck of bag can be opened or closed. Bags have to be closed safely. Must be excluded spontenous cases of opening.

Rolls, Pockets

These can be used as a packing, in case that there is a cargo which can get mechanical forces (compression, hitting, pushing) and pollution, which are packaged in a fairly stable material and safely closed. Bales can be made of combination of packing materials. Due to wooden slats is achieved the strengthening of packings. Regardless of this bales must be fixedly banded.

Cages for animals

These must be strong enough, have a solid floor and must be constructed so as in any case there is airflow. The distance between the grids bars must be such as the animals could not stick out of their trunk.

Pallets

Different characteristics of pallets help us to identify their types. For identification are taking into account different details: length, width and height of pallet boards, quantity of boards in of pallets and etc. Below are introduced the main types of pallets and terms of use.

Sertificated euro pallet (Eur pallet)

Dimensions: 800x1200x145 mm

Sertificated fin pallet (FIN pallet)

Dimensions: 1000x1200x145 mm

Transportation non disposable pallets

Dimentions match to the euro and fin pallets with 20-22mm wigth of board.

CMR

The CMR cargo is an international document that is formulated in virtually all European countries and in the process of cargo transportation within the CIS. This document contains information about the type of cargo, its recipient and sender. When the carrier crosses the border, appropriate notes are placed in the consignment note. It is important to remember that a lot depends on the accuracy of the CMR filling, so it is better to approach the process with full attention to avoid difficulties.